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Continuous Developments at the Steel Plant 1 Usiminas Ipatinga Through Slagless® Technology

2015

Author:
Breno Totti Maia1, Adeilson Roberto Ribeiro2, Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos (in memoria)1, Carlos Alberto de Souza2, Fabrício Silveira Garajau1, Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra

Resume:
The BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) is most important reactor in steel production, with 53% of the total amount of steel produced around the world. USIMINAS, located in Ipatinga city, center of Minas Gerais state in Brazil, has two Steel Plants, both working with BOF converters. Steel Plant 1 has three 80-ton converters while Steel Plant 2 has two 175-ton converters. The BOF converters are steel vessels lined with refractory bricks and support for a belt that permits 360-degree rotation. The rotation allows for stages of the process such as charging hot metal and scrap and tapping steel and slag. Figure 1 shows the schematic drawing for a converter and some parameters.




AOD Mouth Cleaning Results in APERAM South America Using Slagless Clean Up®

2015

Author:
Breno Totti Maia1, Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos (in memoria)1, Fabrício Silveira Garajau1, Humberto de Sousa Barcelos2, Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra1, Maurício Ferreira Coelho2, Otávio Augusto de Cunha Teixeira2

Resume:
Nowadays the main target in most stainless steel plants is to optimize production costs. APERAM South America works with an AOD-L that started in January 2002, using an old available space around LD 2 facilities, which was shut down during that time. Carbon and electric steels are produced in an MRP-L converter. The AOD-L was installed using systems, compounds and devices that worked in the old LD. The main modifications made were: blow system, tilting, charging and dedusting system. Figure 1 shows the actual steel plant schedule in APERAM South America(1).




Earliest Leak Detection (ELD): A New Concept of Security in Water Leak Detection in Electric Arc Furnaces

2014

Author:
Thiago Pinto Wandekoken - Breno Totti Maia - Paulo Hopperdizel

Resume:
Water leakage from water-cooled panels in an EAF is considered to be of high operational and safety risk in the steel manufacturing process, and the early detection of the leak is an essential and necessary factor to minimize and/or eliminate such risks. Large-scale laboratory and industrial tests were carried out successfully, accrediting the technology to market.




EOF COLD MODEL – STUDY OF BATH BEHAVIOR1

2014

Author:
Ana Clara Petrucelli - Breno Totti Maia - Gustavo Abreu - Rafael Kajimoto Imagawa - Roberto Parreiras Tavares

Resume:
O reator EOF foi desenvolvido no Brasil nos anos 80 com características únicas. O pré aquecedor de sucata e a distribuição dos pontos de injeção de gases oxidantes e combustíveis conferem estas características. O objetivo deste trabalho é reproduzir o comportamento do banho metálico de um EOF de 45t comparando seus três pontos de injeção: lanças supersônicas, lanças atmosféricas e ventaneiras. A lanças supersônicas e ventaneiras promoveram uma grande agitação do banho quando comparado com os injetores atmosféricos uma grande oportunidade de melhoria.




EOF COLD MODEL – STUDY OF MIXING TIME1

2014

Author:
Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos - Breno Totti Maia - Fabricio Silveira Garajau - Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra - Hugo Leonardo de Freitas - Jose Geraldo Torres - Rudolf Huebner - Roberto Parreiras Tavares

Resume:
O estudo do sopro de oxigênio no EOF é muito complexo e envolve diferentes fenômenos, incluindo o desenvolvimento do jato supersônico, a interação do jato com o ambiente ao seu redor e o banho metálico, onde ocorrem importantes reações. No presente trabalho, diferentes alternativas de desenho de lança e bicos e arranjos desses no interior do EOF são desenvolvidos a interação do jato supersônico com o ambiente do banho metálico foi caracterizada. Para o EOF, o objetivo foi determinar a melhor combinação de variação de injetores e vazões para alcançar o menor tempo de mistura, estabelecendo um novo padrão operacional. O injetores tiveram pouco relevância no tempo de mistura. Ventaneiras e lanças supersônicas apresentaram os menores tempos de mistura. A lanças supersônicas tem influência nos mecanismos de movimento do banho e projeção de material líquido no EOF, enquanto as ventaneiras afetam o movimento do banho.




CFD Simulations for Water Flow in Lance to BOF

2014

Author:
Breno Totti Maia - Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos - Fabrício Silveira Garajau - Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra

Resume:
• The CFD models are able to prevent and develop new performance of lance tip;

• Lance tips needs to have high velocity in the hot region or face of the tip;

• High velocity promote increase in the coefficient heat transfer;

• High coefficient heat transfer guarantee the mechanical properties of the solid materials for longer time;

• This work was applied practically into the steel shops and the results showed increase at the lance tip life by 6 times.




COMPARAÇÃO DA PENETRAÇÃO DO SOPRO DE OXIGÊNIO EM CONVERTEDORES BOF COM BICOS MULTIFUROS UTILIZANDO MODELAGEM FÍSICA1

2014

Author:
Ana Clara Petrucelli - Breno Totti Maia - Caio Nogueira Araújo Diniz - Débora Silveira - Pedro Henrique Marques Spínola de Andrade - Rafael Kajimoto Imagawa - Roberto Parreiras Tavares

Resume:
A principal ferramenta de controle do processo BOF reside na regulagem do sopro de oxigênio. A análise dos parâmetros de interação entre o sopro e o banho metálico compõe o objetivo deste trabalho. Através de uma análise visual da penetração e fração volumétrica da bacia de descarburação, foi determinada a melhor configuração de sopro entre diferentes combinações de bicos multifuros (3 a 6 furos), distância lança-banho e vazão. Foram feitas previsões sobre a penetração do jato a partir de um balanço de energia a fim de validá-las com o modelo físico. As maiores penetrações foram alcançadas com os bicos de 3 e 4 furos, com a maior vazão e menor distância lança-banho dentre os padrões testados. Todavia, as maiores frações volumétricas da bacia de descarburação foram obtidas com 5 e 6 furos, vazão e distâncias variadas dentre as ensaiadas. Palavras-chaves: BOF; Penetração de jato; Bacia de descarburação; Froude; Modelo físico.




Effect of blow parameters in the jet penetration byphysical model of BOF converter

2014

Author:
Breno Totti Maiaa - Rafael Kajimoto Imagawab - Ana Clara Petrucellib - Roberto Parreiras Tavares

Resume:
It is important to know about the bath behavior to reduce the blow time and splashing in topof the converter. The target of this work is to compare works on the effect of twisted nozzle,flow and lance height in the jet penetration by visual inspection and by energy balancethat consider number of nozzles, vertical and twist angles. In the present work, lances withtwisted nozzle angles, normal lances and special nozzle shape were used to describe theeffects of jet on bath. Jet penetration and level of splashing were also available. For the fournozzles, the best result to reduce spitting was obtained at the twist angle, hard blow andhigh flow. High flow, reduction in bath lance distance and lower nozzle angle promoted ahigher penetration, but with bad results for the process. The energy balance showed to bea proper tool to promote adjustments in process.
Numerical Modeling of Flow into Primary Dedusting System of a 130t Converter

2012

Author:
Breno Totti Maia - Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos - Fabrício Silveira Garajau - Hugo Leonardo de Freitas - Jose Geraldo Torres - Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra - Roberto Parreiras Tavares - Rudolf Huebner

Resume:
The dedusting system is a device to control air pollution that function is to take, flow gases and fine solids. The other function is to split solids of the gases. There are two mainly types: dry systems and wet systems. In this study, the 130t LD converter has these two types. The primary dedusting is the wet system and used to take the gases direct from the converter’s mouth. The secondary dedusting is the dry system and collect fumes around converter.




New Concept of the Auxiliary Fuel Injection Tuyeres of Blast Furnaces Developed by Numerical Simulations

2012

Author:
Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos - Breno Totti Maia - Fabricio Silveira Garajau - Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra - Paulo Santos Assis - José Eduardo Mautone Barros

Resume:
The injection of pulverized materials through the tuyeres of blast furnaces has been of great differential for the steel industry. Currently, the pulverized coal has become a very important supplementary fuel for generating heat and reducing the replacement of expensive metallurgical coke to reduce operating costs, stabilize blast furnace operation and reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. However, as the increased rate of pulverized coal injection (PCI), also increases the percentage of unburned coal. This material is not burned crosses the boundary of the combustion zone and is transported into the furnace, reducing the permeability of the surrounding coke and can even affect blast furnace stability.




Mathematical Simulation of Blow Through Supersonic Nozzles

2011

Author:
Breno Totti Maia - UFMG / Lumar Metals Leandro Miranda Nascimento - UFMG / Gerdau Cearense Jose Eduardo Mautone Barros - UFMG Marcelo de Souza Lima Guerra - Lumar Metals Roberto Parreiras Tavares - UFMG

Resume:
BOF Practice
Oxygen is blown into the hot metal;
Oxygen reacts with carbon of the hot metal;
Oxygen flow needs high speeds to penetrate into
high density metallic bath;
The products are CO(g) and CO2(g);
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Velocities and pressure profiles within the domain;